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Although there is substantial evidence documenting the stress generation effect in depression i. The present study tested an extension of the stress generation hypothesis, in which the content of dependent stress that is produced by depression-prone individuals is contingent upon, and matches, the Abnormal f seeks Monroe m of Monro particular vulnerabilities.
This extension was tested within the context of two cognitive models i.
Women seeking casual sex Bobtown Pennsylvania Overall, support was obtained for vulnerability-specific stress generation. Specifically, in analyses across vulnerability domains, evidence of stress-generation specificity was found for all domain-specific cognitive vulnerabilities except self-perceived social competence. The within-domain analyses for cognitive vulnerabilities produced more mixed results, but were largely supportive.
Additionally, excessive reassurance-seeking was specifically predictive of dependent stress in the social domain, and moderated, but did not mediate, the relation between negative inferential styles overall and in the interpersonal domain and their corresponding generated stress.
Finally, no Abnormal f seeks Monroe m was found for a stress generation effect with negative feedback-seeking. Although an extensive body of research has established that stressful life events significantly increase the risk Abnormal f seeks Monroe m developing depression see Hammen, ; Kessler, ; Paykel, for reviewsrelatively recently, researchers also have given theoretical and empirical consideration to the possibility of a more complex, transactional relation between stress and depression.
That is, depression-prone individuals are likely to experience higher rates of negative dependent events i. Indeed, maladaptive behaviors and characteristics e.
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Several researchers have examined this possibility with depressogenic cognitive styles e. According to the hopelessness theory of depression Abramson et al. Several studies have implicated hopelessness Joiner et al.Fuck Woman Charlottetown
Abbormal Negative interpersonal styles have also been studied Abnormal f seeks Monroe m relation to stress generation. Overall, there is some support for the role of cognitive and interpersonal vulnerabilities in stress generation, though further research is required to tease apart the specific components of these constructs that are relevant to the stress generation effect.
An important possible extension of the Abnormal f seeks Monroe m generation hypothesis not yet adequately explored is that k content or domains of dependent stresses produced by depression-prone individuals may match their particular vulnerabilities. That is, differences in vulnerabilities may predict different patterns of stress.
Moreover, Hot pussy search girls look for sex extension of the stress generation effect may enhance our understanding of its possible role in the onset, maintenance, and recurrence of depression; insofar as specificity in the match between stresses and underlying vulnerability is important in placing individuals at significantly greater likelihood for developing depression i.
Thus, this extension of the stress generation hypothesis may be conceptualized as a double-risk model of depression. Relevant to this extended model of stress generation are a few stress generation studies involving personality traits, such as sociotropy and autonomy. In one Abnormal f seeks Monroe m, Nelson et al. In contrast, Shih found that sociotropy Abnormal f seeks Monroe m higher episodic dependent interpersonal stress, and neither sociotropy nor autonomy predicted episodic dependent achievement stress.
These mixed results, in some measure, may be due to the differing focus between studies on chronic Nelson et al. Nevertheless, they collectively highlight the need for further research.
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The purpose of the present study was to assess the possibility of vulnerability-specific stress generation based on cognitive and interpersonal vulnerabilities. The hopelessness theory of depression Abramson et al.Swinger Party Indian Ridge Mobile Home Park
The specific vulnerability hypothesis of the hopelessness theory Abramson et al. Some individuals may form negative inferences only in Abnormal f seeks Monroe m to negative interpersonal events, whereas others may respond in similar fashion but only to negative achievement events.
This mediational model has received considerable empirical support e. First, as of yet, no studies have considered whether this model may in part account for the stress generation effect. That low self-perceived social competence has been found to relate to increases in chronic interpersonal stress, even after controlling for past Pussy mtn Beaufort, lends weight to this possibility Herzberg et al.
Thus, this model offers a useful framework in which to evaluate the vulnerability-specific extension of stress generation. Based on the literature on self-fulfilling prophecies e. This tendency holds even for individuals predisposed to depression, who strive to verify their negative self-views by seeking negative feedback, leading to negative interpersonal interactions Joiner, and increases in depressive symptoms Joiner, Negative feedback-seeking has Abnormal f seeks Monroe m been Abnormal f seeks Monroe m as a possible mechanism of stress generation Joiner,though this relation has yet to be tested.
Coyne has suggested that individuals susceptible to depression seek reassurance from others in an attempt to confirm their self-worth, as well as the care and interest of significant others.
Abnormal f seeks Monroe m
These individuals, however, tend to discount the initial reassurance they receive Abnkrmal being insincere, leading them to solicit additional reassurance. The repetitive pattern of seeking and discounting reassurance continues until frustration is experienced by others, leading to deterioration of the relationship and rejection of the depression-prone individual, ironically appearing to confirm their negative self-views and doubts regarding the initial feedback.
Of relevance to Abnormal f seeks Monroe m current study, excessive reassurance-seeking has been found to predict the generation of interpersonal stress Birgenheir et al. Both negative feedback-seeking and excessive reassurance-seeking may exert a greater effect in domains of low self-perceived competence. For example, an individual who feels assured of their ability in intellectual domains, but is concerned about their physical attractiveness, may be more motivated to seek feedback or reassurance in the latter domain than the former.
Additionally, the effects Housewives looking real sex Gordonville Texas 76245 these interpersonal styles may be more pronounced in interpersonal domains than achievement-oriented ones to the degree that they differ in the availability of more objective feedback e.
In summary, the Abnormal f seeks Monroe m study examined the specificity of the Abnormal f seeks Monroe m between depressogenic vulnerabilities, in the form of negative inferential styles and self-perceived competence domains, and prospectively generated stress, as well as the role of negative feedback-seeking and excessive reassurance-seeking as potential mediating or moderating mechanisms.
Specifically, it was hypothesized that negative inferential styles and low self-perceived competence would predict higher levels of Mlnroe dependent, but not independent, episodic stress.
To assess the vulnerability-specific stress generation model between vulnerability domains, the second hypothesis was that negative inferential styles and low self-perceived competence, respectively, within a given domain Naughty looking casual sex Rancho Cucamonga predict more Mlnroe dependent stress than would other vulnerability domains.
Third, to evaluate the specificity of stresses generated within vulnerability domains, it was hypothesized that negative inferential styles and low self-perceived competence, respectively, within a given domain would predict more domain-congruent than domain-incongruent dependent stress.
Mondoe, negative feedback-seeking and excessive reassurance-seeking were hypothesized to predict subsequent dependent, but not independent, episodic stress, and these relations were Abnormal f seeks Monroe m to be Abnormal f seeks Monroe m for social stress than stress in other domains.
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Finally, both interpersonal styles were assessed as potential mediators and moderators of the relation Monrie negative inferential styles and low self-perceived competence, respectively, and the generation of domain-congruent dependent stress. Participants were recruited from the Temple University undergraduate population through psychology courses and flyers posted in the campus community.
Participants received either research credits in partial fulfillment of their class research requirements or a small monetary compensation for their participation. A series of independent samples t tests and chi-square tests was conducted to assess potential differences between attritors and non-attritors on demographic and baseline study variables i.
The demographic and descriptive statistics sseeks participants who completed Time 2 are presented in Table 1. A composite score was calculated for inferences mean ratings for the globality, stability, consequences, and self-implication dimensions in response to the hypothetical events, with higher scores reflecting more negative inferential styles. The CSQ was originally composed of two subscales assessing negative inferential styles in achievement and interpersonal domains.
In the current study, only three of the domain-specific scales were included i. Items are scored on a 4-point Likert scale, Mpnroe higher total scores reflecting higher self-perceived competence.
Higher scores indicate Abnormal f seeks Monroe m reassurance-seeking. This measure has shown high reliability, with alpha coefficients ranging from 0. The FSQ has demonstrated adequate reliability, with an alpha coefficient of. They were used in the current study to assess events that occurred between the initial visit and Ladies seeking nsa New sarpy Louisiana 70047 follow-up period.
In particular, the number of academic-relevant events Abnormal f seeks Monroe m expanded to include negative oral feedback e. Moreover, and mirroring these findings from stress exposure studies of depression, cognitive vulnerabilities may be associated more with the generation of major dependent stressors Safford et al. Following completion of the LES, participants were interviewed with the LEI by a trained research assistant or graduate Abnormal f seeks Monroe m.
The LEI serves as a reliability and validity check on the LES, as it allows for life events to be more objectively identified in order to reduce potential Abnormal f seeks Monroe m report biases.
The LEI includes explicit criteria for event definition and a priori probes to help the interviewer determine whether reported events on the LES meet the event definition criteria. It Abnormal f seeks Monroe m allows Mongoe obtaining additional information regarding the nature and context in which the event occurred.
Any event that did not meet the event definition criteria were disqualified, as were events that started or occurred before the initial study visit. Naughty looking nsa Olathe impact and dependence ratings were each averaged across the three raters.
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Based on its average dependence rating, each event was then dichotomized as either independent, or at least partly dependent, on the participant. Similarly, each event was dichotomized, based on its average impact rating, as either mild or non-mild.
As non-mild life stressors were the primary focus of the current study, averaged objective impact ratings essentially functioned as another means to identify and screen out mild life stressors that had Abnormal f seeks Monroe m seks.New Creampie Online Sex
Thus, events Abnormal f seeks Monroe m on average as minor were excluded from all analyses. In the current study, inter-rater reliabilities i. At the follow-up Time 2participants completed the LES. They also completed two semi-structured interviews: Correlations among the main study variables are presented in Table 2.
As baseline BDI-II scores were positively skewed, they were submitted to a square root transformation seeos satisfy assumptions of normality.Naughty Woman Wants Casual Sex Altoona
To control for potential stress generation effects associated with depression itself, baseline BDI-II scores and past depression were covaried in all analyses. To determine whether overall and domain-specific negative inferential styles and low self-perceived Lonely sexy women Cato New York predicted subsequent overall dependent, but not independent, episodic stress, separate sets of Abnormal f seeks Monroe m analyses Abnormal f seeks Monroe m conducted.
For each domain of cognitive vulnerability, dependent and independent stress, respectively, were regressed on to the cognitive vulnerability, controlling for baseline Abnrmal scores and past depression see Table 3. More negative inferential styles overall, and in each of the domains, predicted greater dependent stress. In contrast, none of the predictors was significantly associated with independent stress. Additionally, low self-perceived competence in the academic domain, zeeks not in the seeeks or appearance domains, predicted higher overall dependent stress.
None of the self-perceived competence domains predicted independent stress. Cognitive vulnerability domains predicting overall dependent and independent episodic stress. To examine Abnormal f seeks Monroe m a negative inferential style within a given domain Abhormal predict more domain-congruent dependent stress than would negative inferential styles in other domains, three stepwise regression analyses were conducted.
Baseline BDI-II scores and history of depression were entered as covariates and cognitive vulnerabilities incongruent with the stress domain of interest were entered as the predictor variables in Step 1, with domain-specific dependent stress as the criterion variable.
The domain-congruent cognitive vulnerability was then entered as the predictor in Step 2. As detailed in Table 4negative inferential styles in the achievement, interpersonal, and appearance domains predicted domain-congruent dependent stress in the final regression model, indicating that each negative inferential style Abnormal f seeks Monroe m domain-congruent Abnorma, stress over and above what v be accounted for by domain-incongruent negative inferential styles.
For each of the three vulnerability domains, a more negative inferential style predicted greater domain-congruent dependent stress. Moreover, in each case, negative inferential styles in the two incongruent domains were not predictive of domain-specific dependent stress in the final regression model, Durango IA sexy women that any variance in the criterion variable accounted for by domain-incongruent negative inferential styles was better explained by the domain-congruent negative inferential style.
To address this issue, the relevant regression analyses Woman seeking sex tonight Holly Hills Florida repeated with a negative inferential style in the interpersonal domain excluded from the first model, and a negative inferential style in the achievement domain excluded from the second model. Abnormal f seeks Monroe m results remained unchanged.
In both cases, lower self-perceived competence was associated with more domain-congruent dependent stress, and domain-incongruent self-perceived competence did not predict domain-specific Abnormap stress in the full regression model. In contrast, however, self-perceived competence in the social domain was not predictive of subsequent domain-congruent dependent stress.
Self-perceived competence in the academic and appearance domains were similarly non-predictive of dependent stress in the social domain. In the three regression models with dependent stress in each of the three domains Abnormal f seeks Monroe m criterion variables, however, self-perceived social competence had a positive regression coefficient. Removing this variable Anormal analyses in the case of dependent Concord sex teen finder in academic and appearance domains, and removing the domain-incongruent predictors in the case of stress in the social domain did not alter the results.